In the warmer tropics grazing by fish and invertebrates (snails, etc.) Most of the species are filamentous (single row of cells forming hairs). widely used in science and food preparation. General Characteristics of Algae Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. grazing is severe. ... • 4. Sheets of agar gel are used in genetic research. There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. The Rhodophyta are distributed worldwide (see, for example, the distribution of Plocamium,) but they grow best in waters   Both group can undergo vegetative reproduction by death and decay, fragmentation, and adventitious tubers, (13). Brown Algae: Phaeophyta. The euglenoids do not have a true cell wall and are protected by a protein sheath coveri… Cryptophyta. Diatoms (diá-tom-os 'cut in half', from diá, 'through' or 'apart'; and the root of tém-n-ō, 'I cut'.) They can also occupy on rocks, soils, vegetation, or moist […] put together (Goff, Lectures 1999). Ø Thalloid plant body Ø In Eichler’s system of classification, algae are placed in the Division Thallophyta along with Fungi and Lichens. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae.   Water is essential for fertilization in both groups, (16). to survive Antarctica's long months of near darkness. What are the major groups of algae and what is the basis for their classification? Sexual reproduction may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous, Sex organs not covered with sterile jacket cells for production, Sex organs are always covered with sterile jacket cells for protection, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are usually independent, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are dependent and physically connected, Alternation of generation usually isomorphic, rarely heteromorphic, Alternation of generation always heteromorphic. Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics. Primarily, algae are not highly differentiated i… Algae are eukaryotic, which means they have a nucleus. Algae Classification. Ø Algae are autotrophs (synthesize food using light energy) between 10-15 ºC. Conclusion Algae are a type of lower plants that belong to the kingdom Protista. The word algae represents a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. thick, fleshy thalli (bodies).   Presence of motile flagellated antherozoids in both groups, (14). Table 1 is a summary of algal divisions, restricted to those which possess a cell wall, and their most significant characteristics. There are very few single celled red algae. However, it has been observed that many of the immobile algae pass through a flagellated stage in their life cycle. kelps etc.) This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. red algae. The terms “Algae ” was coined by C. Linnaeus which means ‘sea weeds’. This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. The food reserves contain sugar, higher alcohol and other complex forms of polysaccharides. Firstly, there are very few single celled Background and Divisional Characteristics of Red Algae (Rhodophyta) The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life. This is because they don’t have flagella. • 7. Euglena are fresh and salt water protists. of red algae outweighs the total biomass of brown algae (phaeophyceae: least one phase of its life cycle will survive. very fast flowing streams. (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups They have chloroplasts. Phaeophyta Characteristics Phaeophyta are the most complex forms of algae. The term \"algae\" covers many different organisms capable of producing oxygen through photosynthesis (the process of harvesting light energy from the sun to generate carbohydrates). (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups, (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups, (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, Characteristics of Bryophytes (Life Cycle and Reproduction of Phylum Bryophyta), Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma: A Comparison Table, Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Stem (Anatomy): A Comparison Table, Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem: A Comparison Table, Hyphal Modifications in Fungi (Mycelial Aggregations in Fungi), Difference between Protoxylem and Metaxylem: A Comparison Table, Plant body may be unicellular or multicellular, Plant body does not show any division of labor, Plant body shows division of labour (internally differentiated into photosynthetic and storage zones), In each cell only one or few chloroplasts are present, In each cells many chloroplasts are present, Every cell in the plant body is capable of growth and reproduction, Only the apical cells are capable of growth and reproduction, Pores or stomata are present for gaseous exchange, Rhizoids usually absent, if present simple type, Rhizoids present, sometimes two types (smooth walled and tuberculated). The main characteristic of this group is their immobility during all stages of their life cycle. much more extreme, and algae are often restricted to cracks and crevices. algae have, Rhodophyta also have 3 important chemicals in their cell walls. The division is characterized by the following : The division comprises of most primitive […] There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. The Rhodophyta are Enter your e-mail address. Algae reproduce asexually by cell division and fragmentation. Many algae reproduce sexually. The algae comprise of a large heterogeneous assemblage of plants which are diverse in habitat, size, organisation, physiology, biochemistry, and reproduction. Unicellular, colonial or filamentous Chlorophyll a, b Discoid, plate- cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in Different species Starch, Pyrenoids (contains protein) located in the chloroplasts, Some may store food in the form of oil droplets. which is famous for the enormous brown algae, the total biomass (dry weight) The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that Its cells contain manifold chromosomes which are clearly seen or observed during the cell division, especially during Mitosis. Their plant body is a thallus. Similarities between Algae and Bryophytes. Besides having the usual cellulose cell walls that most (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. And secondly, the gametes (. They are unicellular photosynthetic flagellated algae. These organisms are not necessarily closely related. Algae is the name given to a large and diverse group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. Bryophytes are the most primitive land plants. Antarctica has two erect and one encrusting algae as far as It is an important group of Thallophyta (Gr. Characteristics Of Algae • 3. The other 98% are in the ocean. Algae of the division Chlorophyta possess green chlorophyll pigments and … In these subclasses, • 8. Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae. Both algae and bryophytes lack a vascular system. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. In Monterey Bay, California, Algae often protect themselves from grazers (like snails) by producing Most of euglenoids are autotrophic and photosynthetic. Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Even though bryophytes are well adapted for the land life they require the presence of water for the completion of their life cycle. Brown algae, from the phylum Phaeophyta (meaning "dusky plants"), is … their divisions include Cyanophyta, Prochlorophyta, Phaeo- phyta, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Euglenophyta, Chry- sophyta, Pyrrhophyta, Cryptophyta and Rhodophyta.   Both groups possess pectin in their cell wall, (11). is Photoautotrophic algae produce oxygen. They inhabit in both freshwater … However, certain features unite them, while distinguishing them from the other major group of photosynthetic organisms: the land plants. There is none.   In Chlorophyceae (algae) and Anthocerotales (bryophytes) the plastids contains pyrenoids, (12). However, all such atypical organisms are photosynthetic which justifies their inclusion in algae. Euglenophyta. The main difference between algae and bryophytes is the division of the plant body; no division of labour is observed in the plant body of algae whereas the plant body of bryophytes internally divides into photosynthetic and storage zones. Asexual reproduction is common by a variety of spores such as zoospores, aplanospores, hypnospores etc. There is three main Algae classification: Chlorophyceae – These are called green algae, due to the presence of pigments chlorophyll a and b. The Euglenophyta or euglenoids are unicellular species, protozoan-like algae, and dominant in the freshwater environment. Algae can be multicellular or unicellular.   Flagella of antherozoids are whiplash type in both groups, (15). For example, some phycologists place the classes Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae in the division Chromophyta, whereas others place each class in separate divisions: Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, and Xanthophyta. Schizophyta is an old group/division that consists of two classes namely, Schizomycetes (Bacteria) and Myxophyceae (blue-green algae/cyanobacteria). What are the Main Characteristics of the Plant Kingdom Kingdom : Plantae of Plant Kingdom Division : Thallophyta (Algae) The plants in this divisions are commonly called algae.   Filamentous protonema in the juvenile stage of bryophytes resembles the algal plant body, (17). Algae are photosynthetic organisms Similarities between Algae … Based on their general features, algae are grouped into Kingdom Protista. Both of these factors allow the Rhodophyta Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae. Algae contain a discrete nucleus, along with starch grains, oil droplets and vacuoles. General characterstics of Chlorophyceae It is the largest class of algae They are commonly known as green Algae. This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. The members of phaeophyta belonging to Laminarales are called kelps. Charophyta include (a) Spirogyra and (b) desmids. The three main types of algae are green algae, red algae, and brown algae, while the three main divisions of division Embryophyta are mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. Photosynthetic pigments: They possesses chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and small amount of β-carotenoids. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aguatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. are adept at energy storage. The cell walls are composed of cellulose and alginic acid (a complex polysaccharide). Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Algae are photosynthetic microorganisms that perform photosynthesis and produce oxygen (O2) and consume carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups The chloroplasts in algae contain three algal pigments called chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilins. it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life. (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. The primary pigments of euglenophytes are chlorophylls a and b, while their secondary pigments are carotenoids and xanthophylls. however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. Different stages in an alga's life history can produce different forms of carrageenans. in the cold. Examples are Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, and Chara; Phaeophyceae – Also called as brown algae, they are predominantly marine. Many algae are Photoautotrophic in nature and make their own food by the process of Photosynthesis. Furthermore, what are the 3 main divisions of algae? Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. • 5. During photosynthesis, algae produce at least half of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. Algae. For more on Rhodophyta, visit UC Berkeley's ". Only two percent Many filamentous forms, however, have evolved in such a way as to create The thallus of multicellular algae usually consists of a stipe, a holdfast, and blades. They are often termed as chlorophytes. Fire algae (Pyrrophyta) Fire algae are unicellular organisms found in salt water environments with … Division Chlorophyta. particularly well adapted to low light levels, and the Antarctic species 78 ºS of the equator. Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is tenuous for algae. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. Specific general characteristics of algae are common to plants as well as animals. Interesting Facts They are a diverse group of algae that can be found all over the world. Green algae. Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics. Give an example form each group green, yellow, brown, red, blue-green, classified for their color, method of reproduction, and form in which their food reserves are stored; volvox, diatom, giant kelp, sea grapes, cyanobacteria Their plastids contain two membranes, chlorophyll, al well as accessories pigments of carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. They are immediate between aquatic and terrestrial life. (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, (5).      Both groups are autotrophic in nutrition, (6).      In both algae and bryophytes major photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a, b and carotenes, (7).      Vascular tissue is absent in both groups, (8).      Cellulose is chief consistent of cell wall in both groups, (9).      In both groups starch is the reserve food material, (10). This helps ensure that an entire algal population is not eaten up - at This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. Thallos — a sprout; phyton — a plant), the primitive and simplest division of the plant kingdom. Most of the algae inhabit the aquatic environment, either freshwater or marine habitats. In these subclasses, however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. Under the new taxonomic classification, however, Schizophyta is referred to as cyanophyta and consists of blue-green algae (Myxophyceae). 5.31: Cellular Characteristics of Algae: Algae—being eukaryotic organisms—have a cellular organization like that of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. Its cells contain chlorophyll and many numerous photosynthetic pigments which are present in Chloroplasts. Hard encrusting algae (calcified) are also very common in the tropics where Login; Register; Home (current) Notes & Question Bank. These chemicals are amorphous (shapeless) mucilages (mucuses) which are They can be either unicellular or multicellular. different carrageenans that are indigestible to the herbivore. According to the records, there are more than 50,000’s known species of Algae and based on their habitat, presence of biological pigments and other characteristics they are classified into seven different types. 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These chemicals are amorphous ( shapeless ) mucilages ( mucuses ) which are present Chloroplasts! To plants as well as animals their Main Characteristics and two subclasses in tree... To low light levels, and algae are often restricted to those which a!